Base Oil

Base oil is a type of oil which is used as a base for lubricants. The main element of lubricants (volume wise) is base oil and it forms about 95% of lubricant’s weight. In some lubricants (Compressor and hydraulic oil) 99% of the oil is consisted of base oil and only the 1% which is left contains additives. Base oils can be reached from oil based and non-oil based resources. Most of the base oils used in the world are obtained from crude oil refining. Most of the compounds which form base oils are Paraphinic, Naphthenic and aromatic compounds.

Base oil’s chemical properties and their impact on the usage of final lubricant:

1 volatility: reduction of the oil, oil thickening, sediments

2 surface activity: foaming, pressure tolerance, air release, emulsion expansion

3 oxidations: sediments, oil thickening, metal oxidation, mud forming

4 Viscosity: Fluidity in lower degrees, energy waste, abrasion protection, proper cooling

5 being soluble: Motor neatness, sealant compatibility, process applications, formulation sustainability The base oil which is extracted from crude oil is called mineral base oil which is categorized in two types (Paraphinic and Naphtshic). Paraphinic oils are consisted of normal hydrocarbons and Iso hydrocarbons. Naphthic oils are consisted of annular full hydrocarbons. Paraphinic oils have certain attributes in comparison with naphthic oils such as;

• More shedding temperature

• Less special weight

• More viscosity indicators

• Less solubility property

• Higher resistance against oxidation

• Higher flash point

Mainly naphthic oils are needed for less temperature criteria and pour point specially; hydraulic oils, coolers, rubber producing oils, metalworking and cylinders’ lubricants for big motors and greases.



Kinematic Viscosity(cst) @40°C 18 – 20 ASTM D466
Kinematic Viscosity(cst) @100°C 3.5 – 3.8 ASTM D466
Flash point (°C) 180 – 183 ASTM D92
Pour point (°C) 0 – -3 ASTM D97
Appearance Clear Visual
Density@20°C 0.835 – 0.840 ASTM D1298
Neutralization value <0.01 IEC 296
Odor Odorless
Sulphur (ppm) 350 MAX ASTM D1266
Color (saybolt) 1.5 – 2 ASTM D1500


Kinematic Viscosity(cst) @100°C 8 – 10 Min ASTM D 445
Viscosity Index (VI) 95 ASTM D 2270
Flash point, °C 235 Min ASTM D 92
Pour point, °C -6 ASTM D 97
Specific gravity @15.6°C 0.88 ASTM D 4052
Sulphur content, (Wt%) 0.4 ASTM D 2622
Color 2 Max ASTM D 1500
TAN, mg KOH/g 0.0> ASTM D 664
Carbon residue content, (Wt%) 0.12 ASTM D 189


Density 0.850 – 0.870 ASTM D 1298
Flash point 170 Min ASTM D 92
Kinematic Viscosity(cst) at 100°C 3.5 – 4 ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity(cst) at 40°C 40 – 50 ASTM D 445
Color 2 MAX ASTM D 1500


Density@20°C, Kg/L 0.880 Min ASTM D 1298
Flash point, °C 210 Min ASTM D 92
Kinematic Viscosity(cst) @100°C 8.5 – 9 ASTM D 445
Kinematic Viscosity(cst) @40°C 7 – 7.5 ASTM D 445
Pour point, °C -12 ASTM D 97
Viscosity Index 95 ASTM D 2270
Color 1.5 Max ASTM D 1500

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